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Deesse LED Mask,Micro-Dermabrasion,Micro-Needling,Home USe,New Zealand
Deesse LED Mask,Micro-Dermabrasion,Micro-Needling,Home USe,New Zealand
Deesse LED Mask,Micro-Dermabrasion,Micro-Needling,Home USe,New Zealand

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Deesse LED Mask,Micro-Dermabrasion,Micro-Needling,Home USe,New Zealand

What is LED therapy?


Ultrasound Cavitation,News & Updates,Intouch Medical LTD
Ultrasound Cavitation,News & Updates,Intouch Medical LTD


Understanding Adipose Tissue & its Function


Adipose Tissue & How Fat Cells Work


A little more than half of the adults in New Zealand are overweight. Statistics show that an incredible 28% percent of the NZ. population is considered to be "obese." (Nov/2012) In the USA according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), obesity and overweight status is determined in adults by finding a person's "Body Mass Index" or BMI.

BMI is a calculation that takes into consideration both a person's body weight and height to determine whether they are underweight, overweight or at a healthy weight. An adult who is considered "overweight" has a BMI somewhere between 25 and 29.9. An adult with a BMI of at least 30 is considered "obese." This measurement is used because it's typically a good indicator of body fat.


Whether due to concern for related health risks (high blood pressure, heart disease, diabetes, sleep apnoea, respiratory problems, etc.), or just for sheer aesthetics, many New Zealanders worry about fat. In fact, at this very moment, thousands of New Zealanders are exercising or dieting to reduce their amount of body fat. But have you ever wondered what fat is? When a person "gets fat" -- gains weight -- what is actually happening inside the person's body? What are "fat cells" and how do they work?

Fat, or adipose tissue, is found in several places in your body. Generally, fat is found underneath your skin (subcutaneous fat). There's also some on top of each of your kidneys. In addition to fat tissue, some fat is stored in the liver, and an even smaller amount in muscle.


Where fat is concentrated in your body depends upon whether you are a man or woman:
- An adult man tends to carry body fat in his chest, abdomen and buttocks, producing an "apple" shape.
- An adult woman tends to carry fat in her breasts, hips, waist and buttocks, creating a "pear" shape.

The difference in fat location comes from the sex hormones estrogen and testosterone. Fat cells are formed in the developing foetus during the third trimester of pregnancy, and later at the onset of puberty, when the sex hormones "kick in." It is during puberty that the differences in fat distribution between men and women begin to take form. One amazing fact is that fat cells generally do not generate after puberty -- as your body stores more fat, the number of fat cells remains the same. Each fat cell simply gets bigger! (There are two exceptions: the body might produce more fat cells if an adult gains a significant amount of weight or has liposuction performed.)

In this article, we will look at how fat cells store fat and how they get rid of it. See the next page to learn more.


How Fat Enters Your Body


When you eat food that contains fat, mostly triglycerides, it goes through your stomach and intestines. In the intestines, the following happens:

1. Large fat droplets get mixed with bile salts from the gall bladder in a process called emulsification. The mixture breaks up the large droplets into several smaller droplets called micelles, increasing the fat's surface area.
2. The pancreas secretes enzymes called lipases that attack the surface of each micelle and break the fats down into their parts, glycerol and fatty acids.
3. These parts get absorbed into the cells lining the intestine.
4. In the intestinal cell, the parts are reassembled into packages of fat molecules (triglycerides) with a protein coating called chylomicrons. The protein coating makes the fat dissolve more easily in water.
5. The chylomicrons are released into the lymphatic system -- they do not go directly into the bloodstream because they are too big to pass through the wall of the capillary.
6. The lymphatic system eventually merges with the veins, at which point the chylomicrons pass into the bloodstream.

You might be wondering why fat molecules get broken down into glycerol and fatty acids if they're just going to be rebuilt. This is because fat molecules are too big to easily cross cell membranes. So when passing from the intestine through the intestinal cells into the lymph, or when crossing any cell barrier, the fats must be broken down. But, when fats are being transported in the lymph or blood, it is better to have a few, large fat molecules than many smaller fatty acids, because the larger fats do not "attract" as many excess water molecules by osmosis as many smaller molecules would.

In the next section, we'll look at how fat is stored in your body.


Fat Storage


In the last section, we learned how fat in the body is broken down and rebuilt intochylomicrons, which enter the bloodstream by way of the lymphatic system.

Chylomicrons do not last long in the bloodstream -- only about eight minutes -- because enzymes called lipoprotein lipases break the fats into fatty acids. Lipoprotein lipases are found in the walls of blood vessels in fat tissue, muscle tissue and heart muscle.

When you eat a candy bar or a meal, the presence of glucose, amino acids or fatty acids in the intestine stimulates the pancreas to secrete a hormone called insulin. Insulin acts on many cells in your body, especially those in the liver, muscle and fat tissue. Insulin tells the cells to do the following:

- Absorb glucose, fatty acids and amino acids
- Stop breaking down glucose, fatty acids and amino acids; glycogen into glucose; fats into fatty acids and glycerol; and proteins into amino acids
- Start building glycogen from glucose; fats (triglycerides) from glycerol and fatty acids; and proteins from amino acids.

The activity of lipoprotein lipases depends upon the levels of insulin in the body. If insulin is high, then the lipases are highly active; if insulin is low, the lipases are inactive.

The fatty acids are then absorbed from the blood into fat cells, muscle cells and liver cells. In these cells, under stimulation by insulin, fatty acids are made into fat molecules and stored as fat droplets.

It is also possible for fat cells to take up glucose and amino acids, which have been absorbed into the bloodstream after a meal, and convert those into fat molecules. The conversion of carbohydrates or protein into fat is 10 times less efficient than simply storing fat in a fat cell, but the body can do it. If you have 100 extra calories in fat (about 11 grams) floating in your bloodstream, fat cells can store it using only 2.5 calories of energy. On the other hand, if you have 100 extra calories in glucose (about 25 grams) floating in your bloodstream, it takes 23 calories of energy to convert the glucose into fat and then store it. Given a choice, a fat cell will grab the fat and store it rather than the carbohydrates because fat is so much easier to store.

Next, we'll look at how your body breaks down fat.

The human body contains two types of fat tissue:

- White fat is important in energy metabolism, heat insulation and mechanical cushioning.
- Brown fat is found mostly in newborn babies, between the shoulders, and is important for thermogenesis (making heat). Since adult humans have little to no brown fat, we'll concentrate on white fat in this article. See the bottom of this page for more on brown fat.

Fat tissue is made up of fat cells, which are a unique type of cell. You can think of a fat cell as a tiny plastic bag that holds a drop of fat. White fat cells are large cells that have very little cytoplasm, only 15 percent cell volume, a small nucleus and one large fat droplet that makes up 85 percent of cell volume.


Breaking Down Fat


When you are not eating, your body is not absorbing food. If your body is not absorbing food, there is little insulin in the blood. However, your body is always using energy; and if you're not absorbing food, this energy must come from internal stores of complex carbohydrates, fats and proteins. Under these conditions, various organs in your body secrete hormones:

- pancreas - glucagon
- pituitary gland - growth hormone
- pituitary gland - ACTH(adrenocorticotropic hormone)
- adrenal gland - epinephrine(adrenaline)
- thyroid gland - thyroid hormone

These hormones act on cells of the liver, muscle and fat tissue, and have the opposite effects of insulin.

When you are not eating, or you are exercising, your body must draw on its internal energy stores. Your body's prime source of energy is glucose. In fact, some cells in your body, such as brain cells, can get energy only from glucose.

The first line of defense in maintaining energy is to break down carbohydrates, or glycogen, into simple glucose molecules -- this process is called glycogenolysis. Next, your body breaks down fats into glycerol and fatty acids in the process of lipolysis. The fatty acids can then be broken down directly to get energy, or can be used to make glucose through a multi-step process
called gluconeogenesis. In gluconeogenesis, amino acids can also be used to make glucose.

In the fat cell, other types of lipases work to break down fats into fatty acids and glycerol. These lipases are activated by various hormones, such as glucagon, epinephrine and growth hormone. The resulting glycerol and fatty acids are released into the blood, and travel to the liver through the bloodstream. Once in the liver, the glycerol and fatty acids can be either further broken down or used to make glucose.

Losing Weight and Losing Fat
Your weight is determined by the rate at which you store energy from the food that you eat, and the rate at which you use that energy. Remember that as your body breaks down fat, the number of fat cells remains the same; each fat cell simply gets smaller.

Most experts agree that the way to maintain a healthy weight is:

- Eat a balanced diet - appropriate amounts of carbohydrates, fat and protein
- Do not eat excessively - for most people, a diet of 1,500 to 2,000 calories a day is sufficient to maintain a healthy weight
- Exercise regularly

With acknowledgement to “How Stuff Works”


Pulsed light is a procedure using a powerful flash of broad spectrum, non coherent light. It is intended to remove hair and/or for skin photo-rejuvenation. It may include, but is not limited to, Intense Pulsed Light and Variable Pulsed Light.

Laser treatment is a practice involving the use of a laser device, which amplifies light and usually produces an extremely narrow beam of a single wavelength (one colour). It is intended to remove hair and for skin photo-rejuvenation.

Services involving the use of pulsed light and laser treatment have the potential to burn the skin and lead to longer term skin conditions. Pulsed light carries a risk of delayed recognition of skin cancers and misdiagnosing malignant skin lesions (for example, melanoma). Lasers capable of breaking the skin, such as those used for laser tattoo removal, carry the risk of drawing blood. The use of lasers capable of breaking the skin carry the risk of transmitting blood-borne diseases.
Your business premises
Premises should be clean and hygienic. Operators must keep surfaces sanitary and wear protective eyewear. There are minimum standards you must comply with if you have a shop (premises) or are a mobile operation and you must obtain a Health Protection Licence to operate. Information on premises, the conduct required of all operators and standards of practice for any services that risk breaking the skin are included in this pack.
Working with your customer
When providing a health service, it is a good idea to have a conversation with the customer before commencing any treatment so they are aware of what the process will be and you, the operator, are aware of any potential risk to their health. Appropriate aftercare instructions should be given to the customer, and check they understand these instructions.
How to provide a safe service
Essential health & safety
  • All operators must obtain written medical consent to undertake pulsed light or laser treatment on any customer for the removal of hair from moles.
  • Skin lesions and/ or moles on any customer may be managed and removed by a health practitioner only.
Training: Pulsed Light
All operators of pulsed light equipment must have the knowledge and skills necessary to provide pulsed light services, including skin type identification and the safe use of equipment, which can be achieved through the following:
  • National Certificate (or international equivalent) in Electrology, evidence of professional development inpulsed light services, and commercial industry experience of 12 months or more ; or
  • Commercial industry experience of five consecutive years or more using pulsed light equipment, and evidence of professional development in pulsed light services; or
  • Evidence of training with a pulsed light training provider, and industry experience of 12 months or more.
Training: Laser treatment
All operators of lasers that risk breaking the skin must comply with the standards in Risk of Breaking the Skin.
  • All operators of lasers that risk breaking the skin, including those used for laser tattoo removal, must have the knowledge and skills necessary to provide laser services including:
    • skin type identification; and
    • safe use of lasers based on AS/NZS 4173: 2004 and any updates, additions or amendments to that standard; and
    • commercial industry experience of 12 months or more.
  • All operators of lasers that are designed to remove the skin must be a health practitioner and must be trained in the safe use of lasers based on AS/NZS 4173: 2004 and any updates, additions or amendments to that standard.
Display of qualifications

Qualifications must be displayed in a prominent position so customers can read them, and must be in the name of the operator performing the procedure.

Precautions, consent and aftercare

Before beginning any pulsed light or laser treatment, the operator must advise the customer who wishes to undergo such service of the risks associated with the service and give written advice appropriate to the procedure to be undertaken concerning precautions and post service procedures that should be taken by the customer who wishes to undergo the service. Before starting the treatment:

  • A customer must sign a consent form including medical history and skin type;
  • All operators must identify if the customer is suitable for the service. Any customers with a family history of melanoma must be excluded from all pulsed light and laser treatment;
  • All operators must ensure that a patch test, or a trial exposure of a small area of representative skin and hair, is carried out to determine the parameters and to judge how the skin might react to a full treatment. Test patch protocol should include which areas to test, the pulsed light or laser settings, how long to wait to judge skin response, and how to spot adverse reactions.


Record keeping
All operators must keep records of:
  • Each customer consent form with medical history and skin type
  • A record of service including:
    • the date on which the pulsed light or laser treatment was undertaken
    • the type of treatment
    • the location on the body where the pulsed light or laser was undertaken; and
    • equipment calibration and maintenance.
  • All records must be kept secure and confidential for a minimum of two years and made available to the council for inspection on request.
Controlled area
All operators must ensure there is a ‘controlled area’ for the pulsed light or laser equipment, which will have:
  • Clear and detailed safety rules which describe how to use the area correctly, any hazards the operator or customer might be exposed to, who is authorised to use the equipment, and what to do in the event of an accident
  • No windows to prevent eye damage to any passerby
  • No reflective areas such as mirrors
  • Clear signs or warning lights showing when it is safe to enter or when the laser/ intense pulsed light is on; and
  • Suitable door locks or keypads.
Protective eyewear
All operators must ensure suitable protective eyewear is worn by the customer and operator appropriate for the wavelength of light to be used. If the face is being treated the customer must wear opaque metal eyewear. All protective eyewear must be either disinfected or, if disposable, completely replaced after use.
Using pulsed light equipment
All operators must ensure the pulsed light equipment is calibrated to make sure that it is working properly and accurately. The wavelength and service parameters of the equipment must be set according to skin type, hair type, test patch results, and previous service settings.
Cleaning and disinfecting
All equipment that does not need to be sterile must be cleaned and then disinfected by a thermal or chemical disinfection procedure appropriate to the level of disinfection required. Disinfection should be maintained as stated for the product-specific recommended contact time, to the satisfaction of the council.
Best practice: some additional recommendations
Operator’s knowledge
It is recommended that as an operator you seek formal instruction in the recognition of skin cancers; understand the importance of not treating pigmented lesions if you have concerns; and advise customers with such lesions to seek the advice of a registered health practitioner.
Pulsed light: skin preparation and aftercare
  • The area to be treated should be prepared carefully:
    • cleansed and all make-up removed;
    • clean skin close-up photographed;
    • hair shaved or trimmed for hair removal.
  • Adequately chilled.
  • After pulsed light treatment the chilled gel should be removed, the treated area cleansed and soothing cream applied. The treated area should be close-up photographed.
Use of pulsed light equipment
The light applicator should be placed onto the skin and a short pulse of light released. The applicator should then be moved to the neighbouring area and the process repeated until the whole area is treated.
>> Original practice of code summary.